So this week I had an assignment due and I thought that I would share it with you 🙂
Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Study
Photography by Shanell Rudolph
For this particular assignment, we were given a mock case, which we then completed an hour-long presentation on in class. My assignment subject was Parkinson’s Disease, with what turned out to be a semi-complex case.
What did I learn?
During the process of preparing for the presentation and therefore researching Parkinson’s Disease, and its etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, disease progression, and medical treatments (among others): and then looking at herbal and nutritional interventions, I came to understand the steps needed to undertake a presentation.
Step 1: Create a plan: understand your case from the clients perspective
Step 2: Use multiple databases and textbooks to gather a wide range of research
Step 3: Create a powerpoint presentation
Step 4: Practice your presentation!
What would I do differently next time?
Next time I would utilize more of my own knowledge surrounding what I think makes a good presentation; This includes catering to all learning types as follows.
- Visual/ spatial – through the use of using, images, and spatial understanding.
- Aural/ auditory – through the use of sound and music.
- Verbal/ linguistic – by asking questions of the audience.
- Physical/ kinesthetic – through the use of physical activities.
Enough of the presentation talk? What did I learn about Parkinson’s Disease (PD)?
PD is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes the loss of the neurons needed to produce dopamine, which is used to maintain movement in the body. It can be caused by oxidative stress, protein aggregation, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial damage however is idiopathic in etiology (Bhatnagar, Goel, Roy, Shukla1, & Khurana, 2017).
The signs and symptoms of PD are rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia or the slowness of movement, and impaired balance (Best Practice Journal, 2007).
Some of the earliest signs are a loss in the sense of smell which can occur 10 years before a diagnosis is made (European Parkinson’s Disease Association, 2019).
PD has risk factors including infections (such as h.plyori infection, which may contribute to the development of PD, toxins (these include pesticide exposure), head trauma (TBI and exposure to pesticides have shown to increase dopaminergic neurodegeneration), and high coffee (more than 3 cups per day are shown to advance the onset of PD by 4.8 years) and alcohol consumption is also a risk factor (Best Practice Journal, 2007: Lee, Bordelon, Bronstein, & Ritz, 2012: Kandinov, Giladi, & Korczyn, 2009: Nielsen, Qiu, Friis, Wermuth, & Ritz, 2012).
Treatment is directed at education, support in nutrition and lifestyle changes; as everyone is different, these options vary from person to person and are better suited to a discussion with your health practitioner.
First line of treatment is education:
“provide appropriate explanation and education. Explain that PD is slowly progressive and is improved but not cured by treatment. It is associated with increased mortality. The question of wheather treatment reduces mortality remains controversial.”(Murtagh, 2015 pg.317-319).
www.parkinsons.org.nz is also a good place to start if you are wanting to know more about Parkinson’s Disease, its risk factors, and treatment options.
There is a lot of research on PD, and as such I can not write it all in one blog, if you want a series (of blog posts) on PD, share this around and send me a message/email to let me know 🙂
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Best Practice Journal. (2007). Parkinsons disease. Best Practice Journal, 7. Retrieved from https://bpac.org.nz/BPJ/2007/August/parkinsons.aspx
Bhatnagar, M., Goel, I., Roy, T., Shukla1, S. D., & Khurana, S. (2017). Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson’s model of mice. PLoS ONE, 12(5), 1–19. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177254
European Parkinson’s Disease Association. (2019). Olfactory dysfunction (loss of smell sense). Retrieved July 21, 2019, from https://www.epda.eu.com/about-parkinsons/symptoms/non-motor-symptoms/olfactory-dysfunction-loss-of-smell-sense/
Kandinov, B., Giladi, N., & Korczyn, A. D. (2009). Smoking and tea consumption delay onset of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 15(1), 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2008.02.011
Lee, P.-C., Bordelon, Y., Bronstein, J., & Ritz, B. (2012). Traumatic brain injury, paraquat exposure, and their relationship to Parkinson disease. Neurology, 79(20), 2061–2066. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182749f28
Murtagh, J., & Rosenblatt, J. (2015). John Murtagh’s General Practice (6th ed.). NSW: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.
Nielsen, H. H., Qiu, J., Friis, S., Wermuth, L., & Ritz, B. (2012). Treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of Parkinson’s disease in Denmark. European Journal of Neurology, 19(6), 864–869. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03643.x